Expansive thoughts on the expansive universe (part 2)​

Have you noticed how funny spheres are?

They have no boundary, but they aren’t infinite. They are just boundary-less.

Now, this is a fascinating physical concept to try to comprehend. We all believe that a boundary must be like an edge, something we might just trip over. But what if the boundary isn’t a conventional edge, it has no end and just sort of continues wherein you don’t have a beginning or end, but you will always reach the spot you started from?

A very typical property of a sphere.

Let ‘s draw a parallel to the structure of space-time from here.

We looked at the possibility of an accelerated expanse from the general theory of relativity and how Friedmann explained it. After he made his two assumptions, he proceeded to form an expansive model of space-time. Actually, you can draw three distinct models from his hypothesis.

The first model uses the concept of a sphere, wherein you never reach a conventional boundary but will eventually reach the point you started from. The only problem with this idea is that it would take so much time to go around the universe that before you reach your initial point, the universe would have collapsed into itself ( an abstract topic we will look into further in the article).

The second model of the universe describes a curvature of space-time that is governed by a phenomenon of – Open geometry. The third is a model drawn up using flat geometry but changes into a curvature for heavily placed masses in the space-time blanket.

Although it is challenging to predict the kind of expansion taking place in the universe (for the simple reason that we don’t know the entire “amount” of universe involved) the primary objective is to take a sample of one part of the universe – that can be easily observed and studied and look at the changes occurring in the fabric of space-time and changes occurring in every celestial being present.

So here is the low down about expansion

  1. We can take sample spaces of the universe and make predictions by extrapolating the conclusions found there. 
  2. We make general assumptions of the expanding universe.
  3. Try to ask the most bizarre questions and then work down from there.

To even explore these questions, we need to explore a few aspects of expansion

1.what is causing it?

2. what physical phenomena is  observed due to the expansion and,

3. what can we conclude from this?

When we talk about changes in the physical nature of an object we always look at the kind of matter it is made up of. 

Here hypothetically we must assume that antimatter and matter are in equal parts.

What is it that causes the change of a physical body? I would say it has to be the amount of matter that is transforming either within the body or outside of it ( Mind you we are only talking about the amount of total matter of the body itself). So if the transformation of matter is causing the body to change,  what is it that is aiding the matter in transforming? 

In a primitive sense, I would say gravity. Gravity is seen across the universe and in some form is influencing the behavior of the celestial bodies, Though my responders on the Q and A disagree. 

Over 57% said that the acceleration of the universe is not driven by gravity, in fact, they think it is something else that could be causing it. They think that anti-gravity could play a role in the expansion of the universe, almost the same 57% said yes to that!

Here I must disagree, anti-gravity is a space in which an object placed will be free of all gravitational phenomena. anti-gravity at this point is very imaginative and highly theoretical. If we have anti-gravity,

the anti-energy and anti-mass must also exist which is very hard to formulate in our 3 dimensional constricted world. 

Let us for one min assume that anti-gravity is a phenomenon of the real world, it still does not help in the movement of space-time, in fact, it would do almost the opposite. It would essentially create a space of almost no force. 

Looking at expansion more closely scientists think that it is essentially a new type of matter – dark matter- that causes dark energy to help accelerate the expansion. Not going into much detail ( because that is what we will see in the 3 and 4th part), let me put one question – what is it that causes this type of energy to even form?

we know that antimatter is still a collection of particles which have definite mass and gravity defined in our mathematical space. Except antimatter during collision with matter completely annihilates it. So instead of expanding the space between any two bodies, it would probably be destroying any matter based structure around it.

The truth is we don’t know and we go back to our original speculations of causing expansion itself. 

Let’s look at the bigger picture – let’s assume that space is accelerating and there is something pertinently causing it. How much space do you think is there for space to expand 70% said infinite and 30% said finite. And I want to explore why there is only finite space to expand. 

Going back to Friedmann’s models, one of the base parameters of all of them is that all structures collapse into themselves. Eventually, you will end back where you started but by the time you reach the initial point space-time would have collapsed and the entire physical structure would have changed.  

We cannot verify this at the moment but we definitely can examine how this phenomenon can take place.  When will space-time collapse? 

It is defined as an epoch that will be reached in time and then the collapse will take place over and over. The question now is – can time collapse into itself to make this epoch phenomenon possible? 

38% said yes, 38% said no and 23% felt there wasn’t information to make a conclusion.

This brings us to a fundamental question – why isn’t there enough information?

Somewhere time as a concept has not been defined properly and 56% felt that the very definition of time is mixed up. There is orbital time, evolutionary time, physical time and somehow we confuse all of them with clocks that we have made in relation with the rotation of the earth. 

In fact, a perspective that is largely accepted and trumps all of the above cases is the thought that time is the construct of the mind, That we live in a reality where we define time and every consequence thereafter. 

Over time ( pun intended) perspectives will change, physicalities will transform and the universe as we predict will hopefully expand!

Change, as they say, is the only constant, but why is it that time changes? what causes time to change?

Join in on the weekly Q and A on my Instagram handle and let start a thought-provoking discussion!

 

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