​Expansive thoughts for an expansive universe ( part1)

Is there enough space for space to expand?

Imagine a closed container with a gas that has the property to spontaneously expand. There is only so much space ( as much as the container) to expand. So what exactly is happening with the universe? Is there an infinite medium for space to expand?

To answer all these questions, let us start with some basic ones-

Do you believe that the universe is expanding? About 95% of people genuinely believe that space is expanding, and so do most scientists. Amongst scale invariance, blackbody and cosmic radiation let us discuss the simplest solution to the expanding universe – Hubble’s law. Hubble with the help of his telescope was able to examine light from galaxies millions of light years away and note that each time the light was recorded, it was seen that they were red-shifted on the spectrum scale. This indicated that they were moving away from us. Something Alexander Friedmann a Russian scientist had predicted. During the development of the general theory of relativity Einstein was blinded by his belief of a static universe that he was ready to change certain aspects of his theory just to modify a prediction his own theory was making – That the universe is expanding. His introduced something called a ” Cosmological constant.” This cosmological constant was introduced to understand the anti-gravity effects that caused the universe to remain static.

Friedmann, on the other hand, decided that he would rather explain the nature of the universe to expand rather than try and fix the prediction of the theory. In the process, he made two assumptions –

The universe appears to visually look alike in all directions. ( keeping in mind that accuracy of distances and differences of large celestial bodies must be ignored and the observer must be the earth. In the process from any point on the earth subject to clear skies, you will only see stars in any direction regardless of whether they are actually small, big, red or even planets! they must be viewed regarding large scales and hence the operative word – look- is used)

and that the above is true for any point in space.

(Hubble did find these assumptions to be true if seen on a large scale).

Three models were conjured from his hypothesis ( this will be discussed in the next blog).

Let us go back to our question of – Is the universe expanding?

There was a mere 5% that answered ‘No.’ Of them, about 86% felt that the observations that we are making are actually leading to an illusion that the universe is expanding.

Whether the universe’s expansion is an illusion or not we’d have to study Friedmann’s models in detail but for now, let us assume that the universe is expanding.

If the blanket of space-time is moving apart and the universe is expanding, there are bound to emerge structures that are the results of space-time disruption. One prevalent structure is the black hole – The infinite well of nothingness.

Interestingly there is another structure called – Wormholes. These posses very similar properties like the black holes regarding event horizons, space-time disruption, high gravitational pulls and the prospect of physical laws breaking down. However, they are structures that are theoretically predicted to help in space travel. They connect two distinct points in space that are very far apart, and anyone accessing a particular point can travel to the other point almost instantaneously. Such a great way to travel, but have people really heard of them? 17 out of 32 people had heard of them, 5 were hearing about them for the first time, and 10 had only heard of them in moderation with a pop science aspect. Now wormholes are necessarily the easiest to access to build, and the prospect of the remaining as a portal through worlds is subject to specific anti-gravity effects.

A recent study at a Belgian university suggested that black holes do not exist at all and must be classified as exotic compact objects. Meaning the black holes we have been observing maybe wormholes or some versions of them.

Almost 73% of the people feel that this new perspective could shed light ( pun intended) about what a black hole or an ECO contains. The rest 27% felt it was a bit far fetched.

Now wormholes are far more complex structures than black holes regarding the aspect that they must remain an open portal for travel, and the gravity of such intense nature should be at some stable state for this passage to occur between two distinct points.

SO are wormholes naturally occurring or man ( external intelligence) made?

About 15 people felt they were natural, but the 4 people ( with hardcore science backgrounds) felt they have constructed structures. Most scientists and theories backed up with appropriate science do think that structures like wormholes can only be built for the simple fact that nature would find it difficult to create a stable space for antimatter effects that sustain a wormhole ( for the simple reason that everything in life wants to balance out and find some stability).

Let us make another assumption that creating these wormholes is possible and we have learned to control anti-gravity effects. Where would we go?

A ubiquitous answer to this is – Different galaxies.

A more imaginative answer would be – Different universes.

Now with the simple thought that a few quarks combined in a specified plasma state and form this universe, it is of a high possibility that a few others combined in different quantities in different states to create other worlds. The probability factor is almost exponential for the simple reason that we don’t know the initial state or rather how many initial states were established to give a finite number to define how many such universes could have developed.

76% of people believe that there can be infinite such universes with the above precondition.

Now if we feel that these infinite universes exist then who resides in them?

The two options were –

  1. It is “US” in different timelines and different spacial conditions ( meaning the same consciousness in a varied state)
  2. utterly different living organisms from a very different world. ( so aliens I think 😛 )

75% chose the latter option.

Like De Laplace said, to be able to predict the working of a system, we must know the right input factor or the initial state of the system. So referring to our initial hypothesis – is the universe expanding? We must know the initial state doing the expansion or the state during the dark ages (i.e.,. 350,000 years after the Big Bang; note- Big Bang is the theory of expansion not the reason for expansion).

So we cannot study light because there was essentially no light before the 350,000-year mark. Meaning light couldn’t escape the dense plasma. So something called gravitational waves must be reviewed. They are waves created by mass that cause curvature of space-time resulting in a gravitational field.

SO gravitational waves essentially move undetected and unharmed making them an easy target to send information and one to extract information from. 94% of the people feel that detecting and harnessing these gravitational waves from the dark ages could actually prove useful in studying the early universe. They would give us sight into the dark ages like no other expansive structure.

We find it very hard to explain if the universe is expanding and why through the same theory. Our limited knowledge makes it extremely difficult to make concrete statements about the vastness and expansiveness of space-time itself. So our only ability lies in observation, formulation, re-observation, and probable conclusion.

Stay tuned for further discussion about freedman’s model’s, black holes and gravity and time in the next few posts. If you wish to participate in any of these discussions, join the Sunday Q and A on my Instagram account ( sagariiiiiiii__).

Keep Spacesploring!

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